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Breast disease prevention

Often, knowledge about the causes of breast cancer can significantly increase the chance of avoiding this disease by making appropriate decisions. Not all people are equally at risk of developing cancer, including breast cancer. Many factors influence susceptibility to this disease to a greater or lesser extent. The two most common reasons why a woman consults a doctor are: cyclic breast pain and the discovery of a lump or mass. The breast gland consists of stromal tissue and parenchymal tissue.

The breast gland is a hormone-dependent organ. Estrogens stimulate the growth of milk ducts, the proliferation of connective tissue, progesterone stimulates the differentiation of milk ducts and secretory vesicles. Prolactin also affects the structure of the breast gland. Disorders in the secretion of these hormones can affect the occurrence of disorders in the development and structure of the breast gland. Breast diseases are divided into benign, i.e., benign and malignant, i.e., breast cancer. Benign breast diseases are characterized by benign proliferation of stromal tissue and/or breast parenchymal tissue. The most common form of benign breast disease is fibrocystic dysplasia, which affects 50 to 80% of women of reproductive and premenopausal age. Hormonal disorders play a role in its etiology.

 Breast disease prevention

Cysts arise due to the dilation of milk ducts, caused by the closure of their lumen and the obstruction of secretion outflow. They can be solitary or multiple. Fibrous changes involve fibrous tissue proliferation of the stroma. Symptoms of this condition include breast pain, especially in the second phase of the menstrual cycle, and palpable small lumps or masses with indistinct borders, most commonly occurring in the upper outer quadrants of the breast. Treatment involves dietary modification - limiting fat and caffeine intake in the form of coffee and cola, as well as administering vitamins A, E, B-1, B-6, and hormonal medications. Another common benign breast condition is glandular fibroadenoma.

They mainly occur in young women. It is usually a solid mass in the upper quadrant of the breast, firm, mobile, fairly well-demarcated from the surroundings. This form does not tend to malignancy; however, surgical removal of the mass with histopathological examination is recommended.

The second group of breast diseases - malignant ones - is breast cancer, which is the most common malignancy in women. It rarely occurs in women under 30 years of age, most commonly affecting women aged 40-60 years. In 10% of cases, breast pain accompanies it, usually unilateral and unrelated to the menstrual cycle, bloody discharge, usually unilateral, from the nipple, and in advanced stages, a palpable, poorly mobile mass with blurred borders. Women at high risk include those with a family history of breast cancer, carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA gene mutations. Hormonal disorders and breast injuries are also noted in the medical history. Early detection of breast cancer offers a high chance of complete cure.

Therefore, diagnosis and regular preventive examinations are essential before symptoms occur. In breast disease diagnostics, the doctor has a history, palpation examination, ultrasonography, mammography, fine needle biopsy, open biopsy, nipple discharge examination. Breast ultrasound is recommended for younger women up to about 40-45 years of age due to the different breast structure compared to women over 40-45 years of age, where mammography is a better diagnostic test. Both methods complement each other. Current medical standards recommend mammographic examination once a year.

Recent research is promising. American scientists have discovered a gene that activates mechanisms in cells that destroy many different types of cancer.

The discovered CHD5 gene acts as a fuse controlling systems that protect our cells from tumors; when it turns off, cancer appears. Human body cells have their own methods of defending against cancer. They can stop dividing or even commit "suicide" just to protect the rest of the body from the spread of the disease. Research conducted by Prof. Mills indicates that damaging the CHD5 gene blocks these natural mechanisms, allowing cancer to develop.

On the other hand, providing the diseased cell with an additional copy of this gene restores its response capabilities. This means that drugs activating the CHD5 gene can combat many different types of tumors without weakening patients' health like chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Not only a gene blocking tumor development has been discovered, but also the entire mechanism activating the body's cancer-fighting system. This allows for the development of new, more effective treatment methods.

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